Home > CrPC 125 > Kerala HC: It is not every indigent wife that is so entitled to maintenance

Kerala HC: It is not every indigent wife that is so entitled to maintenance

Kerala High Court
Mammad Kunhi vs Rukhiya on 25 May, 1978
Equivalent citations: 1978 CriLJ 1645
Author: P S Poti
Bench: P S Poti


P. Subramonian Poti, J.

1. The petitioner married the respondent Rukhiya in the year 1971 and they lived together thereafter as husband and wife. After living at the husband’s place for some time, the wife left for her tarward house where her Karanavan one Moidu was also living. It appears that for some period during that time the petitioner also lived in that house with his wife. In or about 1974 there seems to have arisen some misunderstanding between the petitioner and the Karanavan of the respondent, According to the petitioner, that concerned the failure of the Karanavan to make available a house specifically put up for the petitioner and his wife partly, with funds advanced by the petitioner. It is further his case that due to the unpleasantness that arose on this account the petitioner could not continue to stay with his wife at the tarwad house and so he left it. It was then that a notice was issued to him on behalf of his wife claiming maintenance for her as well as a child who had been born in the marriage. The petitioner replied to it by Ext. P1 dated 11-10-74. In that he mentioned the circumstances under which he had to cease living with the respondent at her tarwad house and he further mentioned therein that he desired to live a proper married life if that was possible. He also mentioned in his reply that it was only a month earlier that he ceased to live with the respondent and for her expenses of that month he had sent a money order. He expressed his desire that proceedings contemplated by the notice must be avoided in the interest of the parties. Nevertheless the petition for maintenance was filed by the wife. This was contested by the husband. The contest survives here only regarding the maintenance allowed to the wife and not that awarded to the child. He refuted the liability to maintain his wife because, according to him, his wife, whom he wanted to take to his house so that she may live with him, was refusing to comply with his request to go over to his house. The learned trial Magistrate who enquired into this question found that on the evidence of the petitioner and the counter petitioner it had to be found that the relationship between the husband and the karanavan of the wife was strained, and in the circumstances it may not be possible for the respondent to reside with the wife in her house. He further found that there was no reasonable ground for the wife to refuse to live with the husband. In this view maintenance was denied to her. It was against this that the wife took the matter in revision before the Sessions Judge, Telli-cherry. The learned Judge found that the offer to maintain the wife in his house was made by the husband only in answer to the petition, that it was belated and hence it was not bona fide. In this view he directed the husband to pay a sum of Rs. 70 per mensem to the wife besides a sum of Rs. 50 directed to be paid on account of the child. The petitioner has resorted to this Court complaining that the learned Sessions Judge ought not to have held in revision that the petitioner was liable to pay maintenance to his wife despite his offer to maintain her in his house. It is particularly urged in the revision before this Court that the wife has not indicated at any time any ground which may justify her conduct in living away from her husband, and in the absence of a finding on the availability of such a ground the learned Sessions Judge was not right in directing payment of maintenance by the petitioner.

2. The facts of the case as it has come out in evidence indicate beyond any doubt that there is no case of mis-conduct on the part of the husband in regard to his wife. It is not as if the husband was inconsiderate towards his wife or that living with him at his house would in any way be harmful to the mind or body of the petitioner. There is no case of ill-treatment at any time by the husband or want of affection which a wife could normally expect from her husband. On the other hand it appears that the wife wanted to live in her own tarwad house and wanted to have the husband also there. According to her she lived only for a few days with her husband in his house and thereafter went to her tarwad house. It was not suggested that this was for any specific reason. It was only a matter of her personal preference or choice. Evidently the husband was accommodating enough to adjust himself to residence with his wife at her tarwad house. Strained relationship between the petitioner and the karanavan developed, as a consequence of which he moved out of the house. This was followed by a notice calling upon the petitioner to pay maintenance for the wife and the child. The petitioner refuted this liability and indicated the circumstances under which he had to move out of the house where he had been living with his wife. Though this reply has been received on account of the wife she has evidently not come to know of the contents of the reply. Probably it was not brought to her notice by the karanavan. That is what she swears. She has come to court claiming maintenance. The petitioner seeks to meet the claim by the plea that he was prepared to take her with him and therefore she should live with him. The Sessions Judge took the view that the offer to maintain the wife at the husband’s home was belated and therefore not bona fide. This, it is said, is not in accordance with law. That is what calls for consideration in this revision.

3. Section 125 (1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure confers the right to any wife unable to maintain herself to claim maintenance from her husband if he has sufficient means but neglects or refuses to maintain her. It is not as if every wife is entitled to maintenance irrespective of other factors. It is not every indigent wife that is so entitled to maintenance. Apart from showing that the husband has sufficient means it must further be shown that he neglects or refuses to maintain his wife. If a person is willing to maintain his wife in accordance with his civil obligation, there is neither neglect nor refusal. Therefore the question whether the wife is justified in refusing to live with the husband is not a question independent of Section 125 (1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure. Even in deciding the question of liability of the husband to maintain his wife the court would be called upon to decide one way or other as to whether there was neglect or refusal on his part. If a person is bound only to maintain his wife properly in his own home and that he is ready to do but the wife refuses to live there with him it cannot be said that there is neglect to maintain the wife or there is refusal. Normally a husband who provides a congenial matrimonial home to his wife is under no further obligation to pay maintenance if she, notwithstanding that he has a home where she could live a pleasant life discharging her obligations as wife wants to be in her own home, where she expects the husband to join her company. I am attempting to indicate that where a wife is unreasonably refusing to live with! her husband who is prepared to provide her with a matrimonial home that is a matter which must go into reckoning in passing an order under Section 125 (1).

4. When an order for maintenance is passed the allowance directed to be paid must be paid in accordance with the order by the person who is so directed. There must necessarily be a sanction on non-compliance. That is provided in Sub-section (3) of Section 125. This execution is in the manner indicated in that sub-section. There are two provisos under that subsection and the 2nd proviso is relevant in this context. That reads:

Provided further that, if such person offers to maintain his wife on condition of her living with him, and she refuses to live with him, such Magistrate may consider any grounds of refusal stated by her, and may make an order under this section notwithstanding such offer, if he is satisfied that there is just ground for so doing.

The sub-section enables the husband to make an offer to maintain his wife even when execution in accordance with the order of the Magistrate is taken out and that would be an answer for the claim. Evidently that would operate only prospectively in regard to the obligation to maintain. But the provision indicates that an offer to maintain must be assumed as relevant in disposing of a petition for maintenance, That of course must be so for where there is a proper and reasonable genuine offer to maintain a plea of refusal or neglect cannot hold good. Whether the offer is bona fide is another question. But the offer cannot be said to be belated because it is made in answer to a petition. Merely because it is so made in answer to a petition it cannot be said to be wanting in bona fides.

5. An offer to maintain may sometimes be not genuine or good and if, the circumstances under which it is made indicate that it is only a colourable offer just to meet the legal action instituted by the wife it would not be an answer. Several factors may have relevance in the determination of the question whether such offer is bona fide or not. If a person who had been ill-treating his wife as a consequence of which she had to live apart offers to take back his wife to his home when threatened with action, the court may examine the circumstances closely to determine whether the offer is genuine or bona fide. There may be other similar circumstances to which I need not make any particular reference here. Suffice to say that in a case such as that one before me where the parties have been living happily together ever since the marriage but were living separate for some time (for one month before the notice according to the husband and 1 year and 2 months according to the wife) and that is suggested to be due to the conduct of a third party residing along with the wife and husband in the wife’s home where the husband also was living and further, there are no other circumstances of relevance one would wonder how i1 could be said that there is any want of good faith in the conduct of the husband in offering to maintain the wife at his home. That is an offer that he could properly make in the circumstances of the case. The fact that he did not make an earlier offer would not derrogate from the earnestness of his offer. It does not suggest in any way that the offer is sham. The relevant question in such a case is why the wife is refusing to live with her husband despite his offer. It is for her to explain her reasons. Want of bona fides in the husband’s offer has necessarily to be judged in the background of the justification pleaded by the wife for her refusal to live with him and not divorced of it. Absence of any imputation of misconduct on the part of the husband is relevant. The wife when in the box was asked whether she would live with her husband. She shows no justification for refusing to live with him except one and that is that by convention and usage in the area wives are entitled to call upon their husbands to live in their houses, the validity of which plea, I will consider hereafter. For the time being suffice to state that I am not impressed with the plea. If that is the only excuse the wife has, and if that is the only reason for not living with the husband I find that she has no justification for her refusal. Things may be different where the plea is that the matrimonial home offered by the husband is not a congenial home or that there would be third party interference to domestic peace.

6. Is the refusal of a wife to live with the husband in his house legitimate even if there is a case that it is the practice in the locality for the husband to live in the wife’s home? There is no law that I know of obliging the husband to be a resident at the family home of the wife nor is any practice or convention shown assuming that this would make any difference. May be that in Muslim tarwads husbands may choose to live with their wives at the tarwad house whenever it is convenient. That only means that it is open to him to do so and does not oblige him to live at the tarwad house of his wife if he wants the company of the wife and that otherwise he will be forfeiting the conjugal company of his wife. If there is obligation to maintain one’s wife the husband may choose his home and it is at that home that the wife has to live unless there are specific and valid reasons why that may not be practicable in any given instance. There is an obligation on the part of the wife to give her attention to the husband and if she does not feel inclined to discharge such obligation the husband is not without any remedy. The law enables a husband to seek the assistance of an order for restitution of conjugal rights, where he is aggrieved by the conduct of a wife refusing to live with her husband on the plea that she wishes to remain at her tarwad house where the husband, if he so desires may visit her or stay with her and have her company. It goes without saying therefore that it is not a justifiable reason for the wife to contend that the husband may live in her family house.

7. On the above facts it appears to be clear beyond doubt that in this case the husband cannot be called upon to pay maintenance to his wife for he has neither neglected nor refused to maintain his wife. He is willing to maintain his wife as law obliges him by providing a house where she would get all attentions and affections which normally a wife could expect from her husband. Merely because the petitioner made his offer to take her to his home only in the reply statement such offer would not militate against the good faith particularly in the background of the case indicated in this judgment.

8. Before I close I think I should advert to Section 125 (4) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, for, my attention has been drawn to a decision of my learned brother(?) (Colleague) Janaki Amma J. in a case where there was a claim for maintenance by a wife and the question of applicability of Section 125 (4) of the Cr. P.C. was considered by the learned Judge. Section 125 (4) reads thus:

Section 125 (4) No wife shall be entitled to receive an allowance from her husband under this section if she is living in adultery, or if, without any sufficient reason, she refuses to live with her husband, or if they are living separately by mutual consent.

There are three circumstances under which the normal obligation of the husband to maintain the wife will stand negatived. That is by reason of the subsection. These are : (a) where the wife is living in adultery, (b) where the wife and husband are living separately by mutual consent and (c) where the wife refuses to live with her husband without sufficient reason. It goes without saying that if the husband sets up any of these as answer to the claim of the wife it is for him to prove. That the wife is living in adultery is a matter necessarily to be proved by the husband. That the parties are living separately by mutual consent is also to be proved by the husband if he wants to meet the claim for maintenance on that plea. Similarly it is also to be proved that the wife refuses to live with him. ‘Refusal’ is not shown by the proof of the fact of not living with the husband. It is not sufficient to show that the wife is not living with him. The refusal can be proved only by the husband indicating that he is willing to allow the wife to live with him, that he is ready to take her to his home for residence with him, but nevertheless she is not willing. There may be cases where the wife is not living with the husband because she has been driven out of his house. The burden that the wife is ‘refusing’ to live with him is to be discharged by the husband. But when once that is proved I would assume that it is for the wife to show that there are reasons for her living apart from the husband. One of the grounds for denying maintenance, as already indicated, is refusal to live with the husband without any sufficient reason and the burden on the husband to prove this would be discharged by showing that there is refusal by the wife to live with him. The existence of a reason cannot be anticipated by the husband and he cannot be expected to prove that such reason does not exist. One can imagine a number of reasons for a wife refusing to live with the husband. It may be that the wife does not consider the husband sufficiently healthy, sufficiently fair, that the house in which she is asked to live is not good enough for her, that she does not like the surroundings, the home is not congenial, she does not like the presence of the proverbial mother-in-law, that she objects to the pets brought up in the same house and the like. But how can any husband anticipate the reason the wife may possibly have and answer it by showing that such circumstance does not exist. The burden of proof of showing the Justifiable reason must in such circumstances rest not on the husband. If the wife alleges any reason it is such reason that may have to be examined. For instance in this case until the wife indicated her mind that the reason for not living with the husband was that the people in the locality usually lives with the wives in their wives’ house one would not have known of that reason. Once that is disclosed whether that is a justifiable reason is easy of determination.

9. In the decision in Sarada v. Kumaran 1977 Ker LT 942 : 1978 Cri LJ NOC 215 Janaki Amma J. has said:

Evidently Section 125 (4) is an exception to the general liability to maintain referred to in Section 125 (1). He who claims exemption from liability has to prove the existence of circumstances which entitle him to put forward such a claim. Viewed in the above light it is for the respondent to prove that there has been an improper refusal on the part of the petitioner to live with him.

I understand the learned Judge to say that the burden of proving the refusal on the part of the wife to be on the husband and I do not think that the learned Judge further indicated the view that the husband should anticipate the reasons which the wife may have for not living with him and answer that too. Anyhow, it is not necessary to go into this question further for in any view of the case on the facts and circumstances here an improper refusal on the part of the wife to live with the husband has been proved. Hence the question of burden of proof is academic in this case.

10. In the result the revision petition is allowed. The order of the learned District and Sessions Judge is vacated and the order of the Chief Judicial Magistrate restored. Allowed as above. No costs

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  1. Men's Rights
    May 25, 2012 at 10:35 am

    Indian Men, Beware Of Marriage!
    We are born in a society where marriage is treated as sacrosanct, something which was fixed in heaven. It is a relationship valid not only in this life but also in lives yet to come. Nevertheless, this relationship is changing and law has played a very important role in altering this relationship. The legislature drafted these laws to protect the vulnerable women in the relationship, but while doing that didn’t keep in consideration abuse of these laws by not so vulnerable women. The judiciary, while sympathizing with the tears of women, didn’t recognize the fact that these may be crocodile tears. Due to these reasons these laws has become a tool to harass husbands, extort money from husbands and their family, to torture hapless women of the husbands family. In short, these laws have made marriage more a legal relationship than a social relationship.
    The law presumes, everybody knows laws. Marriage is a voluntary relationship, in the sense that till this point of time there is no law which can compel a man to marry (although in practice some women have compel men to marry them by leveling false allegation of rape against them. The recent case of suicide by an ex-Army officer is a cse in point where the man committed suicide due to pressure to marriage and in case of denial threat of false cases.). Thus every man must know the legal provisions before he enters into the legal relationship of marriage. If he enters without knowing these provisions, he cannot blame any other persons for that. However, it is the duty of legal practitioners and social workers to make tem aware of these laws so that nobody enters into a legal relationship of marriage without knowing its implications. Slowly and steadily the number of law governing the relationship between husband and wife is increasing. One thing is common in all laws- they are prejudiced and biased against the men in the sense that they give rights only to the wives and imposes duties only to the husband. Further the language of the law is such that it facilitates abuse of these laws against the husband and his family members. And in fact also the wives are systematically abusing these laws. These laws were primarily designed to protect the vulnerable women in our society but the working of these laws suggest that they have become more a weapon of harassment and extortion in the hand of not so vulnerable women. The Hindu Marriage Act and the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act impose a duty upon the husband to maintain their wife. However a person can claim maintenance only if he/she is not able to maintain himself/herself. The term is ability or potential to maintain and not mere inability to maintain at any point of time. However, a survey of the judgments will clearly shows that even when the wife was able bodies and educated then also the courts have granted maintenance. Further, these two Acts are not sufficient and the Criminal Court is empowered to grant maintenance as per section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. More Acts for the same relief means that the wife has more avenues to harass a husband through the process of Court. We can see that a wife has a right to maintenance- but what is her duty. Law says nothing. If she abuses the husband, then also she can claim maintenance. If she beats her mother-in-law, then also she can claim maintenance. Thus a wife has no duty, only rights. Just maintenance is not something to be very worried about. What is more important that the wife has been given power to send the husband and his family members to the prison at wish? Under section 498A of the Indian Penal Code a wife can complain that she has been treated with cruelty for dowry and name anybody in the relatives of the husband. What is cruelty or what is dowry, nobody knows. A gift to husband is dowry but a gift to wife is streedhan. A husband should not demand any consideration for marriage, but a girl has a right to look for a wealthy husband with a fat pay packet; it is not dowry, it is pragmatism. The law says giving dowry is as criminal as taking dowry, the wife screams that she has given dowry, but the law does not take any action against her- this is women empowerment. Under this Section octogenarian grand mom of husbands are being prosecuted for harassment- this is power of wife. Just these are not sufficient. If your wife commits suicide, invariably you will be prosecuted under Section 304B of the IPC. Here, even the prosecution has not prove many thing, Section 113A is there in the Evidence Act to presume your guilt. When men commit suicide, the law is silent. After all men can commit suicide for so many reasons- wife can commit suicide only after harassment by husband and his family. So what, the suicide statistics shows that more men commit suicide. Once any of these cases are registered against you few things are certain-like you are likely to loose your job. You will be merely suspended if you are in government service. You will spend a couple of months in jail before the bail. In jail too you will have full company of your family members. Finally, you will be granted bail and the trial begins. What will happen in trial, I don’t know. Indian Criminal Justice system is totally biased against the accused. That is why making allegation in India has become an industry. It is a tool of legal extortion in the hand of police and false accusers. Well, the purpose of this article is merely informing the worse half of the population the legal consequence of marriage and their vulnerably, if they decide to marry. Difficult to imagine-even now men marry. In any case old habits die hard. There is no solution. We are living in Rule of Law and when the law is tyrannical and prejudiced, you cannot have a solution. But, the risk can be reduced by taking recourse to written contract at the time of marriage. It is a good idea to enter into written contract at the time of marriage with your would be wife. No law prohibits such type of contract. The contract can make provisions for expenses of marriage ceremony, list of gifts received, the couple decision regarding maintenance, child custody and all other items, which the couple feels necessary to incorporate in the written contract. It may seem nauseating to introduce the idea of contract in marriage, but it is better as law has already entered into marriage. Written contract is just one mutually agreed way to reduce the rigor of falsehood in deposition before the court. It is better to catch up a lawyer before the police catch up with you.

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