Archive for the ‘CrPC 125’ Category

CALCUTTA HC- The future salary not being a tangible corporeal property the same cannot be attached for recovery of the arrear maintenance.



In the case of Md. Jahangir Khan Vs. Mst. Manoara Bibi, reported in 1992 Cri L.J. 83, a Division Bench of our High Court held that the future salary not being a tangible corporeal property the same cannot be attached for recovery of the arrear maintenance.



Form No. J (1)


Criminal Revisional Jurisdiction

Appellate Side


The Hon’ble Justice Ashim Kumar Roy

C.R.R. NO. 399 of 2007

Amal Mukherjee


Pranati Mukherjee & Anr.

For Petitioners : Mr. Jayanta Nath Saha For O.P. No. 1 : Mr. Subhasish Chakraborty Ms. Shreyashi Biswas

Mr. Soumya Chakraborty

Ms. Sasita Halder

Heard On : August 26th, 2008.

Judgment On : 12-11-2008.

In connection with a maintenance proceeding under Section 125 of the code of Criminal Procedure, the present petitioner was directed to pay a sum of Rs. 2,000/- per month to his wife, the opposite party herein as her monthly maintenance. Since the petitioner allegedly made no payment the wife/opposite party moved an application under Section 125 (3) of the Code of Criminal Procedure before the court concerned for enforcement of the said order and for realization and recovery of the amount due i.e. a sum of Rs. 22,000/- relating to the period from February 2005 to December 2005, which give rise to Misc. Case No. 50 of 2006 and the Learned Additional Presiding Judge, Family Court, Calcutta made an order directing that a sum of Rs. 1,000/- per month be deducted from the pension account of the petitioner and be credited to the savings account of the wife/opposite party on and from January, 2007 during the coming 22 months towards the recovery of arrear maintenance in addition to Rs. 2,000/- per month which has already been directed to be deducted from the pension account of the petitioner towards the payment of future maintenance. The petitioner challenged the said order on the ground in default of payment of maintenance allowance and for recovery of the same the future pension cannot beattached.

2. Heard the learned advocates appearing on behalf of the parties. Perused the impugned order as well as other materials on record. Considered their respective submissions.

3. In the case of Md. Jahangir Khan Vs. Mst. Manoara Bibi, reported in 1992 Cri L.J. 83, a Division Bench of our High Court held that the future salary not being a tangible corporeal property the same cannot be attached for recovery of the arrear maintenance.

4. It may be noted that the Learned Judge also in her order observed that no future income can be attached as she was of the view since same was not salary but was pension to which the petitioner is entitled during her lifetime the same can be attached. In this regard the observations made by the Division Bench of our High Court in the aforesaid case of Md. Jahangir Khan Vs. Mst. Manoara Bibi (supra) would be very relevant and is quoted below; Para 13. “A single Judge of Orissa High Court relying on a Karnataka decision in Rudraiah V. Muddagangamma, 1985 Cri LJ 707 sought to make a synthesis in Surekha V. Ramahari, 1990 Cri LJ 639. His Lordship while agreeing that only tangible corporeal property could be attached held that salary when becomes due was liable to attachment. According to the learned Judge, writ of attachment should remain dormant and would revive at the end of the month. With deep respect to the learned Judge, wecannot accept his view for the foregoing reasons. On similar reasons, we are unable to agree with the finding of the referring Judge.”

5. Thus, the future pension of the petitioner not being tangible and still not been earned by him same cannot be attached.

6. The impugned order is thus set aside and accordingly the criminal revision is allowed.

The Learned Judge is directed to proceed with the matter against the petitioner who is in alleged default of making payment of maintenance allowance and to enforce the order of maintenance in accordance with the provisions of Section 125 (3) of the Code of Criminal Procedure. Both the parties are directed to appear before the court concerned within fortnight from this date and the Learned Magistrate is directed to take necessary steps immediately thereafter. In view of the disposal of the main criminal revision C.R.R. No. 399 of 2007, the application for modification and/or variation of the order dated February 2007 passed by the Hon’ble Mr. Justice P.N. Sinha being CRAN No. 1800 of 2007 stands disposed of.

Urgent xerox certified copy of this judgment, if applied for, be given to the parties, as expeditiously as possible.


( Ashim Kumar Roy, J. )

Bombay HC- If there is no Domestic Violence on Woman then the children are not entitle for relief u/s. 20 of PWDVA 2005.

“the monetary relief is available for the children of the aggrieved person if the monetary relief is required to meet the
expenses incurred by the aggrieved person as a result of domestic violence. The monetary relief is also permissible in case losses are suffered by the aggrieved person as a result of the domestic violence.  The monetary relief is available to children of the aggrieved person under Section 20 of the Act. However, the aggrieved person is under obligation to establish that she had to meet the expenses incurred and losses suffered due to domestic violence on   the   part   of   the   respondent.     In   the   present   case,   since   the   learned Magistrate has come to a conclusion that the domestic violence could not be proved   and   since   that   finding   of   the   learned   Magistrate   has   not   been  challenged by the aggrieved person, it follows that no relief could have been given to respondent Nos. 2 and 3 also.




Bombay High Court


Koushik S/o. Anil Gharami,
Aged about 40 years,
R/o House NO.59, Shayamapalli
Khajurikala, Piplani, Bhopal­462022
Tahsil Hujur and District : Bhopal(MP)          ….  PETITIONER.

//  VERSUS //

1.  Sau. Sangeeta Koushik Gharami,

aged about 36, Occu. Service,
2. Ku. Gayatri Sangeeta Gharami,
3. Ku. Astha Sangeeta Gharami,
Age about 6 years,
Respondent No.2 and 3 being minors are
represented by their ad­litum mother the
Respondent Nos. 1 to 3 all are R/o. C/o.
Thakurdas Mahaldar, Post : Alapalli,
Tahsil : Aheri, District : Gadchiroli.
Mrs. Sonali Saware, Advocate with Petitioner.
Mr. C.M.Munje,Advocate with the respondent No.1.
DATED   : MAY 05, 2014.
1. Heard.

2. ADMIT.  Heard finally by consent of the parties.

3. A short question that arises for determination in present writ petition is, as to whether the minor children of the aggrieved person are entitled for maintenance under Section 20 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 if the trial Magistrate has come to a conclusion that the domestic violence has not been proved.

4. Admittedly, the petitioner is husband of respondent No.1 and father of respondent Nos.2 and 3. Respondent Nos.1, 2  and 3 filed an application under Section 12 of the Domestic Violence Act, 2005 in the Court  of Judicial Magistrate First Class, Aheri.  The said application was heard on merits   and   following   points   were   framed   by   the   Magistrate   for determination:

1. Does Applicant No.1 prove that she was subjected to Domestic
Violence by Non­applicant No.1 as alleged in the application ?
2. Do the applicants are entitled for relief claimed in their claim
3. What order ?
The learned Magistrate had answered point No.1 in negative and point No.2 was answered partly in affirmative.  The learned Magistrate had   come   to   a   conclusion   that   respondent   No.1   had   not   been   able   to  establish that she was  subject to domestic violence by the petitioner.   The  learned Magistrate has also come to a conclusion that respondent No.1 was not entitled for any monetary relief.  However, monetary relief was granted to respondent Nos. 2 and 3.  The final order of the learned Magistrate runs as
under :
“1. The application is partly allowed.
2. Non­Applicant   No.1   shall   pay   Rs.2000/­   per
month to Applicant No.2 and 3 each, for their
education, from the date of application.
3. Non­Applicant   No.1   shall   pay   Rs.1000/­   per
month to applicant no.2 and 3 each, for their
maintenance (monitory relief) from the date of
4. parties to bear their own cost.
5. The amount received by Applicant No. 2 and 3
under interim order, Exh.No.18, be set off against
the amount as mentioned above.”

5. The petitioner had filed a criminal appeal against the said order  of the learned Magistrate. The said Criminal Appeal was also dismissed on 9th December, 2013.

6. As already stated, the question that arises, whether respondent Nos.2  and  3 could be  granted  any monetary  relief  despite  the  fact that domestic violence could not be proved by respondent No.1.  In this regard,  one will have to refer to  certain provisions of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act.  ‘Aggrieved Person’ has been defined in Section 2(a) of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 :
“2(a) “aggrieved person” means any woman who is, or has been, in a domestic relationship with the respondent
and who alleges to have been subjected to any act of domestic violence by the respondent;”
7. Chapter IV deals with ‘Procedure for obtaining orders of reliefs’.
Section 12 lays down the procedure for presenting application before the
concerned Magistrate.  Sections 18 and 19 of the Act deal with ‘Protection
Orders’   and   ‘Residence   Orders’,   respectively.     Section   20   deals   with
‘Monetary Relief’.

8. In the present petition, this Court is concerned as to whether  any monetary relief could have been given to  respondent  Nos. 2 & 3. Section 20 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
lays down :
“20.  Monetary   reliefs.­   (1)   While   disposing   of   an
application   under   sub­section   (1)   of   Section   12,   the
Magistrate may direct the respondent to pay monetary
relief to meet the expenses incurred and losses suffered
by the aggrieved person and any child of the aggrieved
person as a result of the domestic violence and such relief
may include, but is not limited to ­
(a) the loss of earnings;
(b) the medical expenses;
(c) the loss caused due to the destruction, damage or
removal   of   any   property   from   the   control   of   the
aggrieved person; and
(d) the maintenance for the aggrieved person as well as
her   children,   if   any,   including   an   order   under   or   in
addition to an order of maintenance under section 125
of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973(2 of 1974) or
any other law for the time being in force.”

9. It is thus, clear that the monetary relief is available for the children of the aggrieved person if the monetary relief is required to meet the expenses incurred by the aggrieved person as a result of domestic violence. The monetary relief is also permissible in case losses are suffered by the aggrieved person as a result of the domestic violence.  The monetary relief is available to children of the aggrieved person under Section 20 of the Act. However, the aggrieved person is under obligation to establish that she had to meet the expenses incurred and losses suffered due to domestic violence on   the   part   of   the   respondent.     In   the   present   case,   since   the   learned Magistrate has come to a conclusion that the domestic violence could not be
proved   and   since   that   finding   of   the   learned   Magistrate   has   not   been challenged by the aggrieved person,  it follows that no relief could have been given to respondent Nos. 2 and 3 also.

10. In   my   considered   opinion,   the   learned   Magistrate   had  committed an error in granting monetary  relief to   respondent Nos. 2 and 3 despite the fact that domestic violence could not be established.  Though it is possible to say that the maintenance was permissible for respondent Nos. 2 and 3 (minor children) under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the monetary reliefs could not have been given to them under Section 20 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.  The view taken by the learned Magistrate and the appellate Court, in my opinion, is not correct and hence, I pass the following order.

i. The writ petition is allowed.
ii. The order passed by learned Magistrate in Misc. Criminal Case No. 27 of 2011 on 12th March, 2013 and the order passed by the learned Sessions Judge, Gadchiroli in Criminal Appeal No. 14 of 2013 on 9th
December, 2013 are set aside.
iii. The amount of Rs.Twenty Five Thousand, deposited by the petitioner  in this Court shall  be refunded to him immediately.

The petition stands disposed of accordingly.


Categories: CrPC 125, PWDVA 2005 Tags: ,

Bombay HC- CrPC 125(3) procedure to be followed for recovery of due amount/ arrears in PWDVA 2005 instead of issuing Non Bailable order Directly.

“the   procedure   laid   down   under Section 125(3) of the Code of Criminal Procedure for getting compliance of  the orders passed by the Magistrate under Section 125(1) of the Code will have to be followed for executing the orders passed by the Magistrate under Section 20 (Monetary Reliefs) of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.   The reliefs available under Section 125(1)(a) of the Code of Criminal Procedure are analogous to the reliefs available under
Section 20 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005. ”




Bombay High Court



Mr. Sachin s/o Suresh Bodhale,
Aged 36 years,
Occupation – Business,
R/o Plot No.2, Apana Ghar Scheme,
Visava Naka, Godoli, Satara (MH). …. PETITIONER


Sau. Sushma w/o Sachin Bodhale,
Aged 35 years,
Occupation – Nil,
R/o C/o Sau. Savita Sanjay Patil,
Plot No.119, Shri Mahalaxmi Apartment,
Nelco Housing Society, Subhash Nagar,
Shri Sudhir Moharir, Advocate for the petitioner,
Shri R.R. Vyas, Advocate for the respondent.
DATED   : 6th
MAY, 2014.
1. Heard learned Counsel Shri Sudhir Moharir for the petitioner  and learned Counsel Shri R.R. Vyas for the respondent.

2. Rule.   Rule made returnable forthwith by the consent of the learned Counsel appearing for the parties.

3. The petitioner has moved this Court by invoking powers of this  Court under Article 227 of the Constitution of India and Section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.  The petitioner is aggrieved by the order passed by   the   learned   Magistrate   in   Misc.   Criminal   Application   No.890/2012
(Sushma vs. Sachin).  The order, which is questioned before this Court, reads as under :­
“Perused the application and stay.
Heard learned Advocate for both sides.
Applicant relied on 2013 All M.R.(Cri.) 2572.   Learned
Advocate for N.A. has opposed that Magistrate has no powers.
N.A. has not paid any amount towards interim maintenance.
Learned Advocate has also confessed that N.A. has not paid any
amount towards interim maintenance order which is passed on
Exhibit 13.
Provision under Section 28(2) is very clear when N.A. has
not paid amount and not complied the order, she cannot be kept
high and dray.  Magistrate is empowered under Section 28(2) to
issue N.B.W.  Citation filed by applicant is very much applicable
in the case in hand.  Hence application is allowed.  Issue N.B.W.
against non­applicant.”

4. The petitioner is husband of the respondent.  The respondent has filed an application under Section 12 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 before the learned Magistrate.  An interim order has been passed granting monetary relief.  It appears that the petitioner has not   paid   the   amount   to   the   respondent   as   per   the   interim   order.     A
non­bailable warrant has been issued for non­payment of amount of interim  maintenance to the respondent by the petitioner.  It appears from the order of the learned Magistrate that the learned Magistrate was of the view that he could formulate his own procedure under Section 28(2) of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.   It appears that the Magistrate was also of the view that he can lay down his own procedure for recovery of the amount of interim maintenance.   Sub­section (2) of Section 28 of the  Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 reads as under :­
“28(2). Nothing in sub­section (1) shall prevent the court from   laying   down   its   own   procedure   for   disposal   of   an
application under section 12 or under sub­section (2) of section 23.
Sub­section(1) of Section 28 of the said Act reads as under :­“28(1). Save   as   otherwise   provided   in   this   Act,   all  proceedings under sections 12, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 and offences under section 31 shall be governed by the provisions
of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)”

5. Therefore,   it   is   abundantly   clear   that   basically   the   learned  Magistrate has to follow the procedure laid down in the Code of CriminalProcedure for recovery of maintenance either final or interim.  Sub­section (2) of Section 28 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act,  2005 can be pressed  into service when there is no provision available for implementing a particular order passed under the Protection of Women from Domestic   Violence   Act,   2005.     If   the   procedure   is   available   in   Code   of  Criminal Procedure,  that is necessarily to be followed.

6. In   my   considered   opinion,   the   procedure   laid   down   under  Section 125(3) of the  Code of Criminal Procedure  for getting compliance of the orders passed by the Magistrate under Section 125(1) of the Code will have to be followed for executing the orders passed by the Magistrate under Section 20 (Monetary Reliefs) of the Protection of Women from Domestic
Violence Act, 2005.   The reliefs available under Section 125(1)(a) of the  Code of Criminal Procedure are analogous to  the reliefs available under Section 20 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.
The procedure for getting compliance of the order passed under Section 125(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure is available under Section 125(3) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which runs as under :­
“125(3). If  any person so  ordered  fails without  sufficient cause to comply with the order, any such Magistrate may, for
every breach of the order, issue a warrant for levying the amount due in the manner provided for levying fines, and may sentence  such   person,   for   the   whole   or   any   part   of   each   month’s  (allowance for the maintenance or the interim  maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be,) remaining unpaid after the execution of the warrant, to imprisonment for a term which  may  extend  to  one  month  or  until   payment  if  sooner made:
Provided that no warrant shall be issued for the recovery of any amount due under this section unless application be made
to the Court to levy such amount within a period of one year from the date on which it became due: Provided further that if such person offers to maintain his wife on condition of her living with him, and she refuses to live with him, such Magistrate may consider any grounds of refusal stated   by   her,   and   may   make   an   order   under   this   Section  notwithstanding  such offer, if he is satisfied that there is just ground for so doing.”

7. The procedure for levying of fines is available under Section 421 of the Code of Criminal Procedure as under :­
“421.  Warrant for levy of fine – When an offender has been
sentenced to pay a fine, the Court passing the sentence may take
action   for   the   recovery   of   the   fine   in   either   or   both   of   the
following ways, that is to say, it may ­
(a)   issue   a   warrant   for   the   levy   of   the   amount   by
attachment and sale of any movable property belonging to the
(b)   issue   a   warrant   to   the   Collector   of   the   district,
authorising him to realise the amount as arrears of land revenue
from   the   movable   or   immovable   property,   or   both   of   the

8. Thus   there   is   absolutely   clear   provision   under   the   Code   of  Criminal Procedure, which lays  down as to  how the  amount of maintenance, final or interim, is to be recovered. The Magistrate, in my opinion, could not have issued  non­bailable warrant directly.   He should have followed  the procedure laid down in sub section (3) of Section 125 &  Section  421 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.  In the scheme of Code of Criminal Procedure, in the first place, the Magistrate was under obligation to issue a warrant for levy of the amount by attachment and sale of any movable property.   The  other remedy available was to issue a warrant to the Collector of the district, authorising him to realise the amount as arrears of land revenue from the movable or immovable property, or both of the defaulter.   The Magistrate could   have   sentenced   the   petitioner   for   the   whole   or   any   part   of   each month’s   allowance   for   the   maintenance   or   the   interim   maintenance   and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be, remaining unpaid after the  execution of the warrant, to imprisonment for a term which might extend to one month or until payment if sooner made.

9. As such the first option available to the Magistrate was to issue a   warrant   for   levying   fine.     If   whole   of   the   amount   was   recovered   by adopting   the   procedure   under   Section   421   of   the   Code   of   Criminal  Procedure, the question of putting the defaulter in prison did not arise.  In case amount was not recovered or part of it was recovered and part of it was not recovered, then the question would have arisen as to how much sentence should be imposed on the defaulter as per the provision laid down in the Code of Criminal Procedure.  The stage of issuing warrant comes only after sentencing and not before that.

10. In view of above discussion, it is abundantly clear that the order dated 02­4 2014 passed by the learned Magistrate  in Misc. Criminal Application No.890/2012 cannot be sustained.  It needs to be quashed and is
accordingly quashed.  The respondent is at liberty to take necessary steps in accordance with law.

11. Rule is made absolute in the above terms.

Bombay HC : Wife or husband’s attorney cannot appear in family courts u/s 13 of Family Courts Act.

August 29, 2013 Leave a comment

Bombay High Court

Neelam Dadasaheb Shewale vs Dadasaheb Bandu Shewale on 17 February, 2010

Bench: R. S. Dalvi






Neelam Dadasaheb Shewale .. Petitioner Vs.

Dadasaheb Bandu Shewale .. Respondent Mr. Milind N. Jadhav i/b Mr. Sagar G. Talekar for the Petitioner. Mr. R. T. Lalwani for the Respondent.





1. This writ petition challenges three interim orders passed in MJ Petition No.A1633/97 which was for enhancement of maintenance under 25 (2) of the Hindu Marriage Act.

2. It may be mentioned that an application under that provision can be filed only upon change in the circumstances of either party which would require modification of the order of permanent alimony passed.

3. Two orders are passed upon three applications of the parties.

4. One application was filed by the ex-husband (husband) seeking to restrain his ex-wife (wife) from using his surname (name) since divorce decree has been already passed and has became final. This application came to be filed as an interim application in the fresh petition filed by the wife after divorce.

5. The Advocate on behalf of the wife argued that the separate petition only should have been filed. Both these reliefs, permanent and interim, are between the same parties pursuant to the same marital relationship which has since ceased. Under Section 7 of the Family Courts Act the Family Court has jurisdiction to decide the petition-application as well as a suit or proceeding (permanent or interim), for injunction arising out of the marital relationship. The husband can, therefore, file a separate application/petition for injunction or take out an application in the wife’s application/petition already filed. In fact, the husband can file a counterclaim in any petition with regard to any relief arising out of the marital obligation. An application which may be in the nature of counterclaim, can therefore be allowed an interim application.

6. The substance of the application is required to be considered rather than its form. The substance of the application of the husband is that the wife should not use his name.


7. The Advocate on behalf of the wife fairly concedes that since the marriage has been dissolved by a decree for divorce which has become final, the wife cannot use the name of the husband. That is the only substance to be considered by the Family Court. Under the impugned order dated 23rd September, 2009 the Family Court has considered that aspect as an application arising out of a marital relationship. It is correctly considered. The order needs no interference.

8. In fact, the Advocate on behalf of wife mentioned that the bank account of the wife stands in both her names. That statement itself shows that the wife uses the name of the husband even after their marital relationship has been dissolved by an order of the Court. The description of the bank account is therefore improper. It is, therefore, clarified that the wife cannot use the husband’s name anywhere including in her bank account. The injunction granted by the Family Court in the application of the husband shall be effectuated for all purposes.


9. The writ petition also challenges another order of the same date between the same parties but in two different applications. One was the application filed by the wife for her to be represented by her constituted attorney on the ground that she is ill, does not know English, she has been mentally tortured at the hands of the husband and she would not be able to stand the court proceeding. The other application is filed by her constituted attorney asking for permission to represent the wife as she cannot financially afford a lawyer, lawyers are otherwise not permitted and that she would be entitled to assistance of the person she has faith in.

10.The legal right of a party in Family Court to be represented by her constituted attorney in place of her Advocate who is registered legal practitioner is required to be seen. Under Section 13 of the Family Courts Act no party is entitled as of right to be represented by a legal practitioner. However, the Court may appoint legal expert as amicus curie to assist her/him. A party has full right to appear before the Family Court. None can object to such appearance. The wife does not desire to have an Advocate. She has refused legal aid offered to her. She contends that she has faith only her constituted attorney. The extent of the right of a constituted attorney is laid down in Order III Rule 1 of the Civil Procedure Code as follows :


1. Appearances, etc., maybe in person, by recognized agent or by pleader. – Any appearance, application or act in or to any Court, required or authorized by law to be made or done by a party in such Court, may, except where otherwise expressly provided by any law for the time being in force, be made or done by the party in person, or by his recognized agent, or by a pleader [appearing, applying or acting, as the case may be,] on his behalf :

Provided that any such appearance shall, if the Court so directs, be made by the party in person.

(emphasis supplied)


11.What is appearance, application or act has been considered by Chief Justice Chagla, as he then was, in the case of Aswin Shambhuprasad Patel and others Vs. National Rayon Corporation Ltd. (AIR 1955 BOMBAY 262). The provision of the aforesaid order was considered taking into account the Bar Councils Act and the Bombay Pleaders Act. It has been held that the aforesaid rule would not apply where a law for the time being in force otherwise expressly provided. It is held that pleading is not included in the expression “appearance, application or act in or to any Court”. This is so because, the right of audience in Court, the right to address the Court, the right to examine and cross-examine the witnesses are dealt with in other parts of the Civil Procedure Code and not under Order 3. It was further held the right of audience in Court is a part of pleading in Court and not “acting” as provided under Order 3. It is further observed that a party in person would have a right of audience in Court and not his recognized agent who would be “appearing, applying or acting” on his behalf. 7


12.Further the right of pleaders to plead in a Court of law under authority of the client and to have a right of audience in Court as a member of Bar is not dealt with under Order 3. The members of the Bar have a right in clause 10 of the Letters Patent as they are qualified to plead in Court as required by specific legislation and rules. Under that clause no person except Advocates, Vakils or Attorneys would be allowed to act or plead for and on behalf of any suitor except the suitor himself. Considering Section 8 of the Bar Councils Act under which no person was entitled to practice as an Advocate unless his name was entered in the roll of Advocates, it was observed that the expression “practice” is wider than the expression “plead”. Similarly Section 9 of the Bombay Pleaders Act, which was similar to the above section, was considered. The proviso to that section allowed a party to appear, plead or act on his own behalf but a recognized agent of the party was allowed to only appear or act (and not plead). It was therefore observed that proviso made a distinction between appearing, pleading or acting and appearing or acting. Whereas the party could do all three of the above her/his constituted attorney 8

could do only the above two. Consequently it was held that in the District Courts a recognized agent had no right to plead by relying on provision 9 of the Bombay Pleaders Act. It was observed that the right of audience is a natural and necessary concomitant of the right to plead and as the recognized agent had no right to plead, it follows that he has no right of audience in Court.


13.The law that is laid down in the aforesaid judgment holds true and good till now and even within Section 13 of the Family Courts Act. The object of Section 13 of the Family Courts Act is to allow a party to represent her/his case and consequently right of the lawyer to plead, appear and have audience in Court is limited but the right given to the party to appear is not extended to that parties’ constituted attorney. Hence, the general law of procedure under Order 3 Rule 1 as also the special laws contained in the Bar Councils Act and the Bombay Pleaders Act would apply even in a Family Court. The object of that provision is that only qualified persons are entitled to appear in Courts and represent the case of their parties. The qualification is of the knowledge of the law and 9

the enrollment under the Act. If constituted attorneys of all the parties are allowed to appear, the Court would be overrun by any number of unqualified, unenrolled persons. Since Civil Procedure Code would generally apply to a Family Court under Section 10 of the Act, the restraint upon appearance under Order 3 of the Code must hold good.


14.In the case of Pavithra Vs. Rahul Raj (AIR 2003 MADRAS 138 it has been held that the recognized agent of the party in a Family Court proceedings cannot be allowed to prosecute it. Considering the various provisions of the Family Courts Act which follow the procedure different from the Civil Courts, it is observed that the parties themselves can be heard. Some times legal assistance can be provided. However, personal appearance of the parties is inevitable to comply with the mandatory provisions of the Family Courts Act. Though the authorized agent, who is not a legal practitioner can file a petition, he can only prosecute or defend it or represent the party only until the Family Court passes an order directing the party to appear in person depending upon the facts and stage of the case. In that case the constituted attorney sought 10

permission to defend the case on the ground that she was not able to come to India to contest the case. Such a permission, it was held, could not be granted.


15.In the case of Sudha Kaushik Vs. Umesh prasad Kaushik (AIR 2005 GUJARAT 244) upon considering the law under normal circumstances as aforesaid it was held since that case the petitioner’s life was in danger his father was allowed to represent his son in the interest of justice though it was held that in normal circumstances any citizen or party is not allowed to be represented by his power of attorney unless he is an Advocate of the Court.


16.Consequently both the orders of the Family Court, Bandra, Mumbai dated 23.09.2009 are correct and cannot be interfered with. Writ petition is dismissed.

(R. S. DALVI, J.)

Bombay HC:- Service of Notice of Maintenance Case should be served to the Respondent (Husband) personally or to the Family of the Respondent and not to the advocate appearing on behalf of Respondent in other matters.

August 27, 2013 Leave a comment

Bombay High Court



Atul S/o. Bhaskarrao Thakre (Deshmukh),
aged about 34 years, R/o. C/o.
Bhaskarrao Sheshrao Thakre, Near Samaj
Mandir Khedkar Nagar, Akola, Dist. Akola. …. APPLICANT.

1. Sau. Anuja W/o. Atul Thakre,
(Deshmukh), Aged 31 years,
Occu. Housewife, R/o. S.B.I. Colony,
No.4, Gajanan Peth, Akola, Tq. and
Distt. Akola.
2. The State of Maharashtra, through
P.S.O. Akola.                      …. RESPONDENTS.
Mr. A.V.Bhide, Advocate for Applicant.
Mr. U.J.Deshpande, Advocate for Respondent No.1.
Mr. V.A.Thakre, Additional Public Prosecutor for Respondent No.2.
DATED   : MARCH 01, 2013.
1. Heard.
3. Heard finally by consent.
4. The applicant is aggrieved by the order passed by learned Family Court   in   Petition   No.E­11/2011   directing   the   applicant   to   pay   a   sum   of Rs.8,300/ per month to respondent No.1 by way of maintenance.  Respondent No.1 is wife of the applicant.  Respondent No.1 has filed an application for grant of maintenance under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure before  the  Family Court.    The  said  application was  finally  decided  by  the impugned order.
5. During   the   course   of   hearing   it   was   pointed   out   by   learned counsel Mr. Bhide  that  the application  filed by non­applicant under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure was not served upon the applicant in
accordance with law.  He has brought to my notice contents of the impugned judgment at paragraph No.10 which can be reproduced as under :
“10.   The   non   applicant   had   filed   the   petition   for   divorce  which was pending in this Court.  His advocate received the service  of  the  notice  of   the  present   proceeding.     The  non­ applicant did not remain present nor filed his say inspite of various  opportunities  given  to  him  hence  by  an  order  dtd 16.6.2011 the applicant was directed to proceed without say.”
6. It   is,   thus,   clear   that   there   was   no   service   of   maintenance  application on the applicant personally or on any of his family members.  The application  was served through the Advocate who was appearing on behalf of the applicant in separate proceedings under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
7. In my considered view, the service effected by the Family Court was not ‘good service’ in law.  For this reason the order passed by the Family Court cannot be sustained.  The applicant will have to be given opportunity of being heard and the application will have to be decided afresh.

i. The application is allowed.
ii. The   order   passed   by   Family   Court   in   Petition   No.E­11/2011 directing  the  applicant  to  pay  a  sum  of Rs.8,300/­  by way of maintenance   to   respondent   No.1   and   all   other   consequential orders are set aside.
iii. The application filed by respondent No.1 shall be heard afresh.
iv. The applicant and respondent No.1 both shall appear before the Family Court on 18th March, 2013 at 11.00 a.m.
v. It is made clear that now Family Court is not under obligation to effect fresh service on the applicant.
The application stands disposed of accordingly.



Delhi HC- Suppression of Facts. Wife guilty of contempt,maintenance dismissed with cost.

“The conduct of the wife (respondent herein) of not disclosing to this Court about a petition being pursued by her and her conduct of concealing the material information from the Court of Judicial Magistrate, Jallandhar obtaining an ex parte order was contemptuous and violation of an undertaking given by her.”


Date of Reserve: January 07, 2010

Date of Order: January 25, 2010

+ Cont. Cas(C) 482 of 2008

% 25.01.2010

Gurbinder Singh …Petitioner Through: Mr. V.M. Issar, Advocates


Manjit Kaur …Respondents Through: Mr. Anish Dhingra, Advocate along with respondent in person.


1. Whether reporters of local papers may be allowed to see the judgment?

2. To be referred to the reporter or not?

3. Whether judgment should be reported in Digest?


1. The petitioner has preferred this contempt petition against respondent alleging violation of an undertaking given to the Court of Additional District Judge, Jallandhar on 8th September 2000.

2. The petitioner and respondent are husband and wife. The petitioner was in the Army and the wife was working as a teacher in S.D. Model School, Jalandhar Cantt. The divorce and various other proceedings were going on between the parties. The parties with the intervention of their counsels entered into a settlement and this settlement was recorded by the Court. In that settlement, the respondent (wife) agreed that she will not initiate any type of action against petitioner or against children of the parties or against the parents of the petitioner and other relatives of the petitioner (the children were at that time living with the petitioner) before the Court of law or before any other authority and she would not do anything which would affect the character, status or reputation of the petitioner. The petitioner also gave a similar undertaking that he would not disturb respondent in any manner and he Cont.Cas(C) 482/2008 Gurbinder Singh v. Manjit Kaur Page 1 Of 3 would not institute any action against her either before the Court of law or before any authority and he will not try to castigate honour or character or reputation in any manner. Thereafter, before this Court in April’05, she (respondent) again filed an affidavit that she would abide by the undertaking given to the learned ADJ on 8th September 2000 and she would not harass or humiliate the petitioner in future and will not create any cause of action afresh. This undertaking was given by way of an affidavit. Thereafter, the respondent herein filed an application under Section 125 Cr.P.C. before the Jallandhar Court in August’ 04 claiming maintenance from the petitioner on the ground that the petitioner had neglected to maintain her and she had no source of income. There is no doubt that the respondent had a right to claim maintenance from the petitioner, if she was not able to maintain herself. A perusal of the ex parte order obtained by her from the Court of Jallandhar shows that she concealed all material facts from the Court at Jallandhar. She did not disclose that she was working as a teacher in a school at Jallandhar and that there was an agreement between the parties arrived before learned ADJ, Delhi and that she had also filed an affidavit in the High Court that she would not unnecessarily harass the husband. Where a person after concealing the material facts about her own employment and about the undertaking given to the Court, files an application for maintenance just to harass the opposite side, after giving an undertaking to the Court that she would not harass the petitioner (husband), I consider this amounts to violation of undertaking given by her. The respondent appeared in person today in the Court and admitted that at the time she filed the petition in the Jallandhar Court, she was gainfully employed as a teacher and she continued to remain in employment till 2008 i.e. even after passing of the order under Section 125 of Cr.P.C. A perusal of the ex parte order passed by learned JM would show that the respondent had concealed from the JM about her own employment, her salary from the school and her assets and contended that the respondent was drawing a pension of Rs.10,000/- per month and his income from other sources was Rs.20,000/- per month and she obtained an order of grant of maintenance @ Rs.3,000/- per month from the date of application. She did not disclose to this Court when she filed her affidavit in this Court in April, 2005 that Cont.Cas(C) 482/2008 Gurbinder Singh v. Manjit Kaur Page 2 Of 3 she had filed a petition at Jallandhar Court which was going on ex parte or that she had already preferred a petition under Section 125 of Cr.P.C which was pending.

3. I consider that the conduct of the wife (respondent herein) of not disclosing to this Court about a petition being pursued by her and her conduct of concealing the material information from the Court of Judicial Magistrate, Jallandhar obtaining an ex parte order was contemptuous and violation of an undertaking given by her.

4. I, therefore, hold the respondent guilty of contempt and a fine of Rs.10,000/- is imposed on her.However, after her retirement, if she seeks maintenance for herself after disclosing to the Court concerned about her pension and other income and properties, which she holds in Delhi and other places, she would be free to make a petition regarding maintenance before the Court of competent jurisdiction.

5. With above order, the petition stands disposed of.

January 25, 2010 SHIV NARAYAN DHINGRA J. rd

Bombay High Court:- No maintenance u/s 125 CrPC of Wife is able to maintain herself.

18. The   learned   Judge   has   considered   how   the   wife   can maintain   herself.     He   has   also considered   that   parties   lived together only for 9 months during 6 to 7 years of marriage after which   the   wife   went   to   her   father’s   flat   where   she   lives   in reasonable luxury.     She  went  for  vacations  to  various  places enumerated in the order in India as well as abroad.  She looked after financial affairs of her husband in his absence.  She refused to give her marriage another chance after being supported by her community elders.   She has also not  filed her income  tax returns and has suppressed her material facts of income.   The learned Judge has considered the fallout of various visits abroad whilst she is a school teacher. Hence the Court rejected maintenance to the wife who is the school teacher.


Bombay High Court
1 CR.REVN.APLN.106/2013(1)


Shabnam Badri  …Applicant(Orig. Applicant)
Shabbir Badri  …Respondent(Orig.Respdt.)
Mrs. Anita Agarwal for Applicant
Mr. Shoib Menon  for Respondent No.1
Shabbir Badri      …Applicant(Orig. Respondent)
Shabnam Badri       …Respondent(Orig.Applicant)
Mr. Shoib Menon for Applicant
Mrs. Anita Agarwal for Respondent No.1
DATED  : 11TH MARCH, 2013
P.C. :
1. The   Criminal  Revision  Application  No.435   of   2012  had
appeared on board on 14th December, 2012 since the applicant
husband was not present it has been dismissed.  It is restored to
hear both the parties, the husband and wife on merits.
2. The husband is a Seaman.   His cross examination shows
that he was a Radio Officer till 1998.  In 2005 he became a Chief
Officer.  Thereafter he was the Master of Ship until 2010.  His
job was on contract basis.   He could not produce  the written
contract.  He claims to be earning about Rs. 1 lakh.  He has not
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2 CR.REVN.APLN.106/2013(1)
produced any documentary evidence to show that fact. He was
asked   about   this  in  his   evidence.     He   failed   to   produce   the
documents   of   service   showing   his   emoluments.     He   instead
produced his income tax returns.  His salary is in US dollars.  It
is tax free.  It would not be reflected in income tax returns.  His
income   tax   returns   would   show   income   otherwise   from   his
salary.   His income tax returns show only the first page of the
returns   without   any   annexures   showing   the   computation   of
income.  It is shown only to be rejected.  His income tax returns
do not carry his case any further.
3. The husband claims that he lost his job.  This would have
to be proved by showing the bank account of the earning whilst
he   admittedly   was   a  master  of     ship   and   then   to   show  the
continuance of that bank account having no credits.  That is not
4. The   evidence   has   considered   certain   insurance   policies.
The husband in his cross examination has admitted that he had
a Current Bank Account in HSBC Bank, UK. He corrected to state
that that was a  Midland bank and then corrected to state that
he did not recollect the bank account.   He admitted that he had
HSBC NRE Bank    account  at Fort.   He  admitted  that he had
HSBC  NRO   Bank   account  at  Bandra(W),   Branch.     He  has   a
saving account with ICICI Bank at Mira Road Branch and he has
ICICI   Bank   account   with   Santacruz   Branch.     He   refused   to
produce the statements of the bank account.  He accepted that
some of them are of joint accounts.  He also accepted that he has
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3 CR.REVN.APLN.106/2013(1)
a  shop which  he  has  disposed  of  for Rs.4 lakhs  after  having
purchased it for Rs. 5 lakhs.  Such real estate value has had no
parallel in  Mumbai.
5. His case of income has to be seen only from his admitted
employment position as the Master of the Ship.  The wife claims
that  he  would  be   earning  Rs.5  lakhs.     He   claims  that  he  is
earning only Rs. 1 lakh.   The learned Judge has considered a
reasonable figure based upon an analysis of what he earns. That
would have to be accepted by the Court.
6.   The husband’s evidence is seen to be wholly evasive and
dishonest.  The husband who is the Master of Ship is bound and
liable to maintain his wife who is a school teacher.  The husband
has   shown   his   bank   account   having   paltry   figures   as   bank
balance.  From   cross  examination it  would  show   and  suggest
that there is another account in which his entire salary has been
credited.  No such bank account is shown.
7. He has deposed that he used to obtain his salary in cash or
cheques depending on situation.
8. The   husband   contends   that   he   was   asked   in   the   cross
examination  and  he  has  produced  thereupon  his  continuance
discharge  certificate  which  would  show  that  he  was  actually
employed for only a few months each year.   The husband has
tendered his continuance certificate to this Court also.  There are
entries of certain years showing certain months in which he was
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4 CR.REVN.APLN.106/2013(1)
under  contract.    The  entries  are  for  the years  2001  to  2010
showing  him as Chief Officer and Master.  These entries are for
about six months at a time.
9. Persons on offshore jobs are given allowance during  the
period when  they  are  on  shore.   These  allowances would  be
lesser  than while  they work offshore while  they are on actual
duties.   The husband has not shown his offshore   emoluments
during his contractual period of his service.
10. The   husband   has   shown   that   he   has   to   incur   personal
expenses of Rs.2 lakhs p.m whilst he is on offshore.  Hence his
income would be at least more than Rs. 2 lakhs.  The learned
Judge has computed the income of the husband upon rational
11. It is seen that the husband has also produced statements of
his   mutual   funds.     There   are   various   investments   in   mutual
funds.   They   are   in   tax   relief   fund–dividend   payout   option,
SBMPP – dividend option etc.  The husband also has individual
health insurance policy which is also required for tax relief.
12. The wife is a School Teacher.  She has also not produced
her   salary   slips.   Her   salary   has   only   been   stated   like   her
husband’s.     Both   have   given   figures   of   the   salary   allegedly
earned  and  thought  to  be  earned.    Both  such  figures  per  se
cannot be accepted.  The learned Judge has computed her salary
also.  That also would, therefore,  have to be accepted.
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5 CR.REVN.APLN.106/2013(1)
13. The   wife’s  parental  home  is  at  Khar.     Her matrimonial
home is in Mira Road.  She went to reside in Mira Road.  She
could not reside because  there were no servants  to assist her.
She has many servants in her father’s house.  She went back to
her parental house and refused to go back to her matrimonial
home.  It would have  to be seen whether it is justified  for  the
wife   of   a   Master   of   the   ship   to   expect   to   have   a   domestic
assistant by way of a maid.  For the wife of a Clerk that same
would be unjustified.  These basic differences are required to be
kept in mind.
14. Oblivious of  that difference,  the husband claims  that he
has called his wife to stay in his home but the wife refused to
stay and hence she is not entitled to maintenance.  The analogy
is incorrect and must be rejected.
15. The   evidence   of   the   wife   shows   that   she   uses   a   car
purchased by the Respondent.   That would show the status of
the  respondent.   The respondent has given a car, but not  the
maintenance  amount.   Hence  she was  constrained  to  sue  for
16. It is seen that the husband has not fully shown his income
as also his investments.  However the wife has also not shown
her income  as  a  teacher.    Adverse inference  must  be  drawn
against both the parties.
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6 CR.REVN.APLN.106/2013(1)
17. The   wife   has  only   shown   the   expenses  of   the  children
whose custody she has.  The parties have two children they are
in VIII standard and IX standard.  They attend Leelawati Poddar
High   School.     The   term   fees   per   child   is   in   a   range   of
Rs.20,000/­ to Rs.24,500/­.
18. The   learned   Judge   has   considered   how   the   wife   can
maintain   herself.     He   has   also   considered   that   parties   lived
together only for 9 months during 6 to 7 years of marriage after
which   the   wife   went   to   her   father’s   flat   where   she   lives   in
reasonable luxury.     She  went  for  vacations  to  various  places
enumerated in the order in India as well as abroad.  She looked
after financial affairs of her husband in his absence.  She refused
to give her marriage another chance after being supported by
her community elders.   She has also not  filed her income  tax
returns and has suppressed her material facts of income.   The
learned Judge has considered the fallout of various visits abroad
whilst she is a school teacher.  The learned Judge has reasonably
considered the suppression by both the parties, the income and
investments  of   both   the  parties,   and   their  usual  standard   of
19. The learned Judge has considered the respective salaries of
the parties and granted maintenance based upon the aforesaid
evidence  of  Rs.10,000/­  each  to  the  children.      The learned
Judge has not granted any maintenance  to  the wife who is a
school teacher.
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7 CR.REVN.APLN.106/2013(1)
20. The conclusion of the learned Judge that she is capable of
maintaining  herself  cannot  be  faulted.    Hence  the impugned
order   cannot   be   interfered   with   in   her   criminal   revision
application.  Similarly the payment of maintenance only for the
children  which  is  also   challenged  by  the  husband  cannot   be
faulted in view of his shown and suppressed earnings.
21. Of course this is only in the petition under Section 125 of
Cr.P.C   where   the   wife   must   show   that   she   cannot   maintain
herself.  She would be entitled to alimony and maintenance as
per law in other proceedings between the husband and wife.
22. For  the expenses  she claims  for her children Rs.10000/­
per month  each granted to the children is seen to be reasonable.
23. Consequently   the   impugned   order   which   has   been
challenged by both the parties does not require any interference.
Both the petitions are dismissed.
24. The   husband   shall   forthwith   pay   all   the   arrears   of
maintenance already granted.

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